See Volunteer Youth Force

Human Rights Watch interviews with Lang Giang, Xuan Truong, Thach An, Trung Khanh, Quy Hop, Can Loc, Huong Son, Thai Hoa, Kinh Mon, Que Phong, Khoai Chau, Con Cuong, and Dinh Lap, Ho Chi Minh City, 2010.

Note that a Volunteer Youth Force order in  tiep bong da k+ January 2011 describing the re-organization of entities under its administration describes four centers, not six: Centre No. 1 (Tuy Duc district, Dak Nong province), Center No. 2 (Lam Ha district, Lam Dong province), Center No. 3 (Phu Giao district, Binh Duong province) and the Nhi Xuan center (Hoc Mon district, Ho Chi Minh City). It may be that some centers under Volunteer Youth Force administration have been merged in 2011. See Volunteer Youth Force, Order No. 41/TNXP-TC, “Regarding Allocation of Competitive Units Among Affiliated Agencies in 2011,” January 18, 2011, para. 2 [translation by Human Rights Watch].

Human Rights Watch interviews with Huu Lung and Cam Khe, Ho Chi Minh City, 2010.

Human Rights Watch interview with Quy Hop, Ho Chi Minh City, 2010.

Ordinance 44, art. 118 allows for administrative decisions to be appealed.

Human Rights Watch interview with Cam Khe, Ho Chi Minh City, 2010.

The civil defense force (dan phong) is a voluntary security force under the authority of ward-level People’s Committees that often collaborates with local police.

Human Rights Watch interview with Lang Giang, Ho Chi Minh City, 2010.

Human Rights Watch interview with Muong Nhe, Ho Chi Minh City, 2010.

For example, Human Rights Watch interviews with Tra Linh, Trung Khanh, Truc Ninh, Quy Hop, Ly Nhan, Ouynh Luu, Yen The, Ba Che and Tien Du, Ho Chi Minh City, 2010.

Human Rights Watch interview with Tra Linh, Ho Chi Minh City, 2010.

Human Rights Watch interview with Ly Nhan, Ho Chi Minh City, 2010.

Human Rights Watch interview with Khoai Chau, Ho Chi Minh City, 2010.

Human Rights Watch interview with Xuan Truong, Ho Chi Minh City, 2010.

Human Rights Watch interview with Tien Du, Ho Chi Minh City, 2010.

Human Rights Watch interview with Muong Nhe, Ho Chi Minh City, 2010.

Human Rights Watch interview with Kinh Mon, Ho Chi Minh City, 2010.

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